For Improved Advocacy
State your assumptions, and describe the data that led
- Explain your assumptions
- Make your reasoning explicit
- Give examples of what you propose, even if they
are hypothetical or metaphorical
- As you speak, try to picture the other
persons perspectives on what you are saying
- Publicly test your conclusions and assumptions
What to say:
- Heres what I think and heres how I
- I assumed that
- I came to this conclusion because
- If I enter a classroom this is what I might
- What do you think about what I just said?
Tools For Improved
Gently find out what data they are operating from.
- Use unaggressive language, ask in a way that does
not provoke defensiveness.
- Draw out their reasoning. Find out as much as you
can about why they are saying what they are
- Check your understanding of what they have said.
- Listen for new understanding that may emerge.
Dont just be thinking about your response.
What to say
- What leads you to conclude that?
- What causes you to say that?
- Instead of "Whats your proof?"
say, "Can you help me understand your
- What is the significance of that?
- How does this relate to your other concern?
- Can you describe a typical example?
- Am I correct that youre saying
Tools for when you
are at an impasse
Embrace the impasses, and tease apart the current
- Look for information that will help people move
- Ask what logic or data might change their views.
- Avoid speaking from a different point of view.
What to say:
- What do we know for a fact?
- What dont we know?
- What do we agree upon, and what do we disagree
- What, then would have to happen before you would
- Journal keeping
- Portfolios of selected documents produced in the
course of their work
- Performance indicators related to goals and
activities of professional plan
- Mentors as "critical friends"
1. Establish a clear direction
a. Envision the future
b. Focused attention
c. Articulate values
d. Enlist others
2. Communicate, communicate, communicate
a. Provide meaning
b. Utilize all forms
c. "Fire in belly"
3. Position the Organization
a. Build trust (encourage the heart)
b. Reliability and constancy
c. Plan small wins
d. Recognize contributions
e. Celebrate accomplishments
4. Development of self
a. Set the example (walk like you talk)
b. Positive self-regard
c. Focus on winning
d. Search for opportunities
e. Experiment and take risks
5. Empower followers/members
a. Establish clear buy-in
b. Foster collaboration
c. Develop a supportive environment